Chapter Summaries

Chapter 1: Early Research - A Strategy For Inclusion and Student Success
Desmond H Murraya,*, Sherine Obareb and James H Hagemanc
a,*Building Excellence in Science and Technology (BEST Early; www.bestearly.com), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0430, murrayd@andrews.edu
bDepartment of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5413, sherine.obare@wmich.edu
cOffice of the President, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, hagem1jh@hotmail.com

Summary
This introductory chapter will define ‘early research’, distinguish it from other forms of active learning, discuss its relationship to inclusion and student success, provide an overview of the book chapters and outline our vision and recommendations for the future of early research. This chapter will highlight current trends and opportunities in, examples of and resources for authentic ‘early research’ and feature its impact on participating students from the traditional historically underrepresented groups (HUGs) in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), as well as on the nontraditional demographic classification of age.

Citation
Early Research: A Strategy for Inclusion and Student Success
Desmond H. Murray, Sherine Obare, and James Hageman
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 1-32

Chapter 2: Advanced Chemical Research at Laguna Beach High School: High School Seniors Engaged in Authentic Laboratory Research
Steven G. Sogo
Chemistry Department, Laguna Beach High School, Laguna Beach, California 92651, United States, ssogo@lbusd.org

Summary
The Advanced Chemical Research program (ACR) at Laguna Beach High School (LBHS) enrolls 20 to 28 twelfth graders each year. LBHS is a suburban public school in a wealthy area of Southern California. The class ethnicity mirrors the makeup of the school, which is 85% white with a smattering of Asian and Hispanic students. Females make up 33 to 45% of each class. The class meets daily, with greater than 90% of class time devoted to hands-on laboratory work. Students engage in three 6-week training projects during the fall semester and a single 18-20 week original research project during the spring semester. During each project, students are grouped in teams of four, encouraging the development of leadership and collaborative skills. Surveys show that approximately 75% of ACR alumni pursue degrees in STEM fields. ACR alumni have won numerous awards for their achievements in STEM fields, and several alumni are currently enrolled in PhD programs. Survey responses show that ACR has a profound impact on the development of essential scientific skills, including critical thinking, communication, goal-setting, and familiarity with laboratory methods. ACR is a highly successful model of a high school research program that inspires and empowers future STEM professionals.

Citation
Advanced Chemical Research at Laguna Beach High School: High School Seniors Engaged in Authentic Laboratory Research
Steven G. Sogo
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 33-47

Chapter 3: A Suburban Magnet High School’s Perspective on Authentic Research Experiences for Students: An Overview of Research Pathways and a Discussion of the Benefits
Mark S. Hannum
Division Manager, Science and Technology Division, Director, Neuroscience Research Laboratory, Physics Department, Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology, 6560 Braddock Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22312, mark.hannum@fcps.edu

Summary
For three decades Thomas Jefferson High School for Science and Technology has served as a national leader in promoting high school students performing authentic research in science, technology, and engineering related fields. Through this long history of promoting, engaging, and evaluating students as they embark on real scientific investigations many lessons have been learned. This chapter will provide an overview of the research options at the school for students and the observed benefits of participating in this research.

Citation
A Suburban Magnet High School’s Perspective on Authentic Research Experiences for Students: An Overview of Research Pathways and a Discussion of the Benefits
Mark S. Hannum
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 49-58

Chapter 4: Perspectives from a New York High School Science Research Enrichment Program Teacher
Erin Wasserman
Formerly, Bedford Central School District, Science Department, Bedford, New York 10506, United States, Ewasserman602z@gmail.com

Summary
This chapter describes the research program at Fox Lane High School, a public school in Westchester County, New York. The average three-year class demographics at Fox Lane High School and in our research program is: 61% white, 27% Hispanic, 5.9% Asian, and 4.6% Black. The socioeconomic diversity of students who choose to participate in this research course ranges from English language learners to the affluent. A key feature of this program is the collaborative process for students to select academic, industrial, or other laboratory sites to conduct their original research project. Last year, our region of Westchester County, New York City, and Long Island hosted over 1500 high school science projects, team and individual, in regional science fairs. From these highly competitive fairs, over 50 projects were sent to prestigious international science fairs, where many placed well against their peers.
 
Citation
Perspectives from a New York High School Science Research Enrichment Program Teacher
Erin Wasserman
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 59-69
 

Chapter 5: Project SEED: A Catalyst for Young Scientists
Cecilia D. Hernandez
American Chemical Society, 1155 Sixteenth Street, N.W., Washington, DC 20036, c_hernandez@acs.org

Summary
Project SEED, established in 1968, is an American Chemical Society program for high school students from economically disadvantaged backgrounds who have an interest in science. The program provides an opportunity for students to participate in research and learn what it is like to work in science-related fields through a hands-on experience. Students conduct research under the supervision of a volunteer scientist-mentor in academic, industrial, and government research laboratories for 8-to-10 weeks during the summer months. Project SEED offers a fellowship payment to support one or two summers of research, as well as the opportunity to apply for a freshman college scholarship for students planning to major in the chemical sciences or chemical engineering. The Project SEED experience encourages many students to continue their education at the college and university level.
 
Citation
Project SEED: A Catalyst for Young Scientists
C. D. Hernandez
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 71-81
 

Chapter 6: Research at Predominantly Two-Year Campuses of Penn State
Lee J. Silverberg1*, John Tierney2, Kevin C. Cannon3
1 Pennsylvania State University, Schuylkill Campus, 200 University Drive, Schuylkill Haven, Pennsylvania 17972, ljs43@psu.edu
2 Pennsylvania State University, Brandywine Campus, 25 Yearsley Mill Road, Media, Pennsylvania 19063, jxt4@psu.edu
3 Pennsylvania State University, Abington Campus, 1600 Woodland Road, Abington, Pennsylvania 19001, kcc10@psu.edu

Summary
This chapter describes undergraduate research conducted at three Pennsylvania State University satellite campuses which do not offer a chemistry degree. An overview of both the challenges and the strategies associated with conducting research, most of it collaborative, on these two-year campuses is presented. Included in this chapter is a summary of the varied undergraduate projects that provide students an opportunity to obtain valuable research experience that will provide a solid foundation when they transfer to a degree-granting campus. Among the three authors, 29, 200+, and 43 undergraduates from the Abington, Brandywine, and Schuylkill campuses, respectively, have participated in research. The projects described, most of which are ongoing, have to date resulted in peer-reviewed publications with undergraduate co-authors from Abington (6), Brandywine (35), and Schuylkill (26) campuses. Undergraduate coauthors have reported that their published work has been a major topic in their interviews at professional schools or jobs that sets them apart from their peers. The majority of the students at these three campus locations are from low to middle-income socio-economic backgrounds, many of whom are first-generation college students. Approximately twenty percent of the students conducting research are minorities, and approximately fourteen percent of the undergraduate co-authors are minorities. The projects, which range in focus from synthetic organic chemistry, pedagogical methodologies, and chemical history, have proven useful to the students in furthering their career goals while enabling faculty to meet research expectations at these two-year campuses.

Citation
Research at Predominantly Two-Year Campuses of Penn State
Lee J. Silverberg, John Tierney, and Kevin C. Cannon
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 83-118

Chapter 7: Course-Embedded Undergraduate Research Experiences: The Power of Strategic Course Design
Nichole L. Powell, Brenda B. Harmon
Department of Chemistry, Oxford College of Emory University, 810 Whatcoat St., Oxford, Georgia 30054, nichole.powell@emory.edu, bharmon@emory.edu

Summary
Research experiences expose students to the complex thinking and analytical skills associated with the quest for knowledge. Embedding authentic research experiences into the first and second year college curriculum therefore requires strategic course design in order to foster the scientific thinking skills students need to successfully navigate their experience. In this chapter we present the use of backward course design and inquiry-based pedagogies as ways to equip students with the habits of mind and laboratory research “toolkit” necessary to design experiments, analyze and evaluate the data they obtain, and to embrace the inherent uncertainty associated with the research process. Our approach resulted in a large majority of students reporting a readiness for more demanding research. We have made the time commitment required of faculty using this approach by anchoring the research undertaken by students to faculty members’ interests.

Citation
Course-Embedded Undergraduate Research Experiences: The Power of Strategic Course Design
Nichole L. Powell and Brenda B. Harmon
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 119-136

Chapter 8: Undergraduate Research at the Community College: Barriers and Opportunities
James A. Hewlett
Professor of Biology, Department of Science and Technology, Finger Lakes Community College, Canandaigua, New York 14424, hewletja@flcc.edu

Summary
From modest beginnings at Finger Lakes Community College in Canandaigua, NY, the Community College Undergraduate Research Initiative (CCURI) has grown into a nationwide network of over 50 institutions in 20 states. CCURI partner institutions collaborate on the development, implementation, and assessment of models for integrating an undergraduate research experience into their STEM programs. Community colleges face unique challenges with respect to embedding a research experience, but are poised to take a leadership position in addressing several National recommendations to develop opportunities for students to engage in authentic research experiences during the first two years of their education. The growth of the CCURI network has provided rich opportunities to study the barriers and opportunities that are specific to the community college. The results of that research are being used to inform a wider network of two-year institutions through focused workshops, professional meetings, and publications developed in collaboration with the Council on Undergraduate Research. With continued growth through new partnerships and affiliations, CCURI will begin to shift toward addressing institutional transformation level research and evaluation questions. Future work will focus on developing an understanding of how CCURI as an organization is changing the culture of community colleges such that research becomes an integral part of the learning experience.

Citation
Undergraduate Research at the Community College: Barriers and Opportunities
James A. Hewlett
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 137-151

Chapter 9: Impact of Summer Undergraduate Research Experiences on Baccalaureate Success by American Indian Students
Glenn D. Kuehn
Department of Chemistry & Biochemistry, New Mexico State University, MSC 3C, P.O. Box 30001, 1175 North Horseshoe Drive, Las Cruces, New Mexico 88003, United States, gkuehn@nmsu.edu

Summary
This chapter includes descriptions of (i) the overall design of a twenty-year project that recruited American Indian students from two-year community colleges at or near tribal nations in the Southwest USA into summer research experiences in the biomedical sciences (chemistry, biochemistry, biology, computer science, microbiology, molecular biology, genetics, etc.) at a research-intensive, four-year university; (ii) the integrated plan of individual and institutional activities that were successful in advancing these students from the community college level to subsequent completion of baccalaureate degrees in science disciplines at four-year institutions; and (iii) the outcomes of the program during its duration. The chapter identifies five likely elements of this program that were most successful in achieving a 77% transfer rate from the students’ respective community colleges to a four-year university (compared to 21% transfer rate for all community students nationally), a low first-year attrition rate of 17% after transfer (compared to 52% attrition rate for American Indian students nationally in all disciplines), and a 51% completion rate of the baccalaureate degree within ten semesters of transfer (compared to 20.2% completion rate nationally for American Indian students in STEM disciplines). Practical insights are provided for potential program directors who are contemplating similar programs with American Indian students in the physical and biological sciences.

Citation
Impact of Summer Undergraduate Research Experiences on Baccalaureate Success by American Indian Students
Glenn D. Kuehn
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 153-184

Chapter 10: Why Early Engagement in College Research Is Important: Lessons Learned at Wayne State University
Joseph Dunbar, Julie O’Connor
Wayne State University, Office of the Vice President for Research, 5057 Woodward, Suite 6409, Detroit, Michigan 48202, jdunbar@med.wayne.edu, julie.oconnor@wayne.edu

Summary
Undergraduate students that attend Wayne State University typically have excellent high school academic records and many begin their first year of college with goals of a career in academic disciplines. However, many exceptionally talented and high-achieving students, particularly students from disadvantaged backgrounds, first generation college and/or under-represented minority (URM) students, often lack a complete package of the academic tools, persistence, confidence and developmental mentoring necessary to persist effectively in a college environment. Many of these students are left behind or inadvertently allowed to drift and become emotionally disengaged in the university. These factors often can result in students dropping out, changing majors or losing focus resulting in them pursuing “convenient” career options when they otherwise could have been successful if an appropriate focus and support structure had been in place to build their skills and develop their ambition. In this chapter, we will describe, analyze and provide some conclusions on our experience in the early engagement of students in research and its impact on their career outcomes.

Citation
Why Early Engagement in College Research Is Important: Lessons Learned at Wayne State University
Joseph Dunbar and Julie O’Connor
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 185-193

Chapter 11: The Science Prize for Inquiry-Based Instruction
Melissa McCartney*1, Bruce Alberts2
1 AAAS/Science, 1200 New York Ave., NW, Washington, DC 20005 (now at Florida International University, mmccartn@fiu.edu)
2 University of California, San Francisco, UCSF MC 2200, Genentech Hall N312C, 600-16th Street, San Francisco, CA 94158

Summary
Inquiry-based classes differ from traditional lectures that focus on transmitting facts and principles derived from what scientists have discovered and instead focus on activating students’ natural curiosity in exploring how the world works. Consider the laboratory work that traditionally accompanies an introductory college science course. Most scientists recall these laboratories as tedious “cookbook labs,” where neither any real understanding of the nature of science nor experience in generating and evaluating scientific evidence and explanations was gained. Many college laboratory exercises remain deficient in precisely these ways today. The Science Prize for Inquiry-Based Instruction was created, with support from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute, to recognize and promote lessons in which students become invested in exploring questions through activities that are at least partially of their own design. In addition to honoring the winning modules, the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) has disseminated them as widely as possible. Each winner has written an essay for Science magazine with complete details on how others can implement their inquiry-based activity, and the entire collection of articles has been made available on an open-access education website at http://portal.scienceintheclassroom.org/category/ibi-prize.

Citation
Why Early Engagement in College Research Is Important: Lessons Learned at Wayne State University
Joseph Dunbar and Julie O’Connor
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 185-193

Chapter 12: Lab Tales - Personal Stories of Early Researchers
Chapter Editors: Desmond Murraya,* and Princella Tobiasb
a,*Building Excellence in Science and Technology (BEST Early; www.bestearly.com), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0430, murrayd@andrews.edu
bBenton-Michiana Spirit Community Newspaper, Benton Harbor, MI 49022, ptobias@bentonspiritnews.com

Student Authors: Ginger Andersonc, Wendy Bindemand, Aaron Calie, Keith Campbellf, David Chavezg, Charlotte Herberh, Deepa Issari, Natalie Kingj, Felicia McClaryk, Samantha Piszkiewiczl, Javon Rabb-Lynchm, Elizabeth Snydern, Michelle Stofbergo and Yusheng (Eric) Zhangp.
cRutgers Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, The State University of New Jersey, Newark, NJ 07103, gaa80@gsbs.rutgers.edu
dSt. Olaf College, Northfield, MN 55057, bindeman@stolaf.edu
eH.T. Lyons, Inc., Allentown, PA 18106, acali@htlyons.com
fGregg Middle School, Summerville, SC 29483, kcampbell@dorchester2.k12.sc.us
gLos Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545, dechavez@lanl.gov
hDepartment of Molecular Biochemistry & Biophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520-4503, charlotte.herber@yale.edu
iDepartment of Bioengineering, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15261, dei4@pitt.edu
jWright Graduate University, Chicago, IL 60611, Natalie@wrightgrad.edu
kBureau for Food Security, US Agency for International Development (USAID), Washington, DC 20004, feliciamcclary@gmail.com
lDepartment of Chemistry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27599, spiszkie@unc.edu
mDepartment of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, jrabb@udel.edu
nDepartment of Micro/Immunology, SUNY Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, NY 13210, snydere@upstate.edu
oDepartment of Chemistry, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, 30322, mstofbe@emory.edu
pMiller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, FL 33136, yxz773@med.miami.edu

Summary
This chapter features the early research experiences of fourteen persons whose current status ranges from undergraduates to graduate students to working professionals. Currently, three are undergraduates, five are in graduate school, two are in the teaching profession, one each is in medical school, the private sector, an international agency and at a national government laboratory. These powerful testimonials are their own compositions written in their own words. They describe the journey from self-doubting apprentices to confident independent investigators and seasoned professionals. Their stories confirm that for the 21st century and beyond, authentic research should be early, often and universal.

Citation
Lab Tales: Personal Stories of Early Researchers
Desmond Murray, Princella Tobias, Ginger Anderson, Wendy Bindeman, Aaron Cali, Keith Campbell, David Chavez, Charlotte Herber, Deepa Issar, Natalie King, Felicia McClary, Samantha Piszkiewicz, Javon Rabb-Lynch, Elizabeth Snyder, Michelle Stofberg, and Yusheng (Eric) Zhang
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 207-245

Chapter 13: The Future of Early Research
Desmond H Murraya,*, Sherine Obareb and James H Hagemanc
a,*Building Excellence in Science and Technology (BEST Early; www.bestearly.com), Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Andrews University, Berrien Springs, MI 49104-0430, murrayd@andrews.edu
bDepartment of Chemistry, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI 49008-5413, sherine.obare@wmich.edu
cOffice of the President, Central Michigan University, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48859, hagem1jh@hotmail.com

Summary
In our concluding chapter we, editors and chapter authors, summarize opportunities that exist for universal adoption of early research. We further provide specific recommendations for implementation across the educational spectrum of high school, community colleges and traditional four-year colleges and research universities.

Citation
The Future of Early Research
Desmond H. Murray, Sherine Obare, and James H. Hageman
The Power and Promise of Early Research. January 1, 2016, 247-254